Shampoo bottle factory wants to design a system to transport products from the production line, through packaging, and finally, into the warehouse for storage. The product size can be seen in Figure 1, and the size of the shelves/racks in the warehouse are Figure 4 below (all measures are in millimeter). a) Design the unit load (how many bottles per carton container, bottle layout, and outer size of the carton). b) Recommend what Material handling equipment to use to move the container to the warehouse and put the container on the shelf (Rack) of the warehouse. How many bottles 240 mm H? 100 100 Figure 1. Product Size Figure 2. Design the Unit Load Figure 3. Packaging Pallet load OLE 2150 mm 1050 Figure 4. Dimension of racks in the warehouse

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Bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, sometimes PETE) can be recycled and used to manufacture new bottles and containers, thermoform packaging, strapping and are also used in fiber applications such as carpet and apparel. In many countries, PET plastics are coded with the resin identification code number “1” inside the universal recycling symbol, usually located on the bottom of the container. The National Association for PET Container Resources (NAPCOR) defines PET as: “Polyethylene terephthalate items referenced are derived from terephthalic acid (or dimethyl terephthalat ) and mono ethylene glycol, wherein the sum of terephthalic acid (or dimethyl terephthalate) and mono ethylene glycol reacted constitutes at least 90 percent of the mass of monomer reacted to form the polymer, and must exhibit a melting peak temperature between 225°C and 255°C, as identified during the second thermal scan in procedure 10.1 in ASTM D3418, when heating the sample at a rate of 10°C/minute.”[1]

The empty PET packaging is discarded by the consumer, after use and becomes PET waste. In the recycling industry, this is referred to as “post-consumer PET.” Many local governments and waste collection agencies have started to collect post-consumer PET separately from other household waste. Besides that there is container deposit legislation in some countries which also applies to PET bottles.

It is debatable whether exporting circulating resources that damages the domestic recycling industry is acceptable or not.[6] In Japan, overseas market pressure led to a significant cost reduction in the domestic market. The cost of the plastics other than PET bottles remained high.

In the United States, there are two primary methods for recovery of PET bottles and containers. The first is curbside recycling to which most consumers have access. The waste hauler brings the recycled material to a material recovery facilities (MRFs) where it is further separated. The PET is then baled and sent on to a PET reclaimer. The PET reclaimer processes the bale, grinding the PET into flakes. Some do additional processing to make ready for food grade packaging. A link to the video of the process may be found here –

The sorted post-consumer PET waste is crushed, pressed into bales and offered for sale to recycling companies. Colourless/light blue post-consumer PET attracts higher sales prices than the darker blue and green fractions. The mixed color fraction is the least valuable due simply to the fact unlike aluminium, there are few standards when it comes to the coloration of PET. Unlike clear varieties, PET with unique color characteristics are only useful to the particular manufacturer that uses that color.[7] For material recovery facilities, colored PET bottles are therefore a cause for concern as they can impact the financial viability of recycling such materials. The Plastics Recyclers Europe (PRE, Brussels, Belgium), that an upsurge in a variety of PET colors would be a problem because no market exists for them in the current recycling climate.[8]

Further treatmentEdit

The further treatment process includes crushing, washing, separating and drying. Recycling companies further treat the post-consumer PET by shredding the material into small fragments. These fragments still contain residues of the original content, shredded paper labels and plastic caps. These are removed by plastic granulation, resulting in pure PET fragments, or “PET flakes”. PET flakes are used as the raw material for a range of products that would otherwise be made of polyester. Examples include polyester fibres (a base material for the production of clothing, pillows, carpets, etc.), polyester sheets, strapping, or back into PET bottles.

Worldwide, approximately 7.5 million tons of PET were collected in 2011. This gave 5.9 million tons of flake. In 2009 3.4 million tons were used to produce fibre, 500,000 tons to produce bottles, 500,000 tons to produce APET sheet for thermoforming, 200,000 tons to produce strapping tape and 100,000 tons for miscellaneous applications.[11]

Petcore, the European trade association that fosters the collection and recycling of PET, reported that in Europe alone, 1.6 million tonnes of PET bottles were collected in 2011 – more than 51% of all bottles. After exported bales were taken into account, 1.12 million tons of PET flake were produced. 440,000 tons were used to produce fibres, 283,000 tons to produce more bottles, 278,000 tons to produce APET sheets, 102,000 tons for strapping tape and 18,000 tons for miscellaneous applications. (Source: PCI for Petcore and EuPR)

In 2008 the amount of post-consumer PET bottles collected for recycling and sold in the United States was approx. 1.45 billion pounds.[12]

In 2012, 81% of the PET bottles sold in Switzerland were recycled.[13]

In 2018, 90% of the PET bottles sold in Finland were recycled. The high rate of recycling is mostly result of the deposit system in use. The law demands a tax of 0,51 €/l for bottles and cans that are not part of a refund system. Thus encouraged by the law, products are included to have a 10¢ to 40¢ deposit that is paid to the recycler of the can or bottle.[14]

Increasing energy prices may increase the volume of recycling PET bottles.[12] In Europe, the EU Waste Framework Directive mandates that by 2020 there should be 50% recycling or reuse of plastics from household streams.[12]

In the United States the recycling rate for PET packaging was 31.2% in 2013, according to a report from The National Association for PET Container Resources (NAPCOR) and The Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers (APR). A total of 1,798 million pounds was collected and 475 million pounds of recycled PET used out of a total of 5,764 million pounds of PET bottles.