Search for the name of the top 3 ranking US Journals in your Field of study and list them. Choose a topic or area of interest that you can find a journal article about and write a summary of that article and choose 10 scientific terms that you are to define using The Merriam Webster Dictionary first AND then define again using your Dictionary of Word Parts and combining Forms (the textbook I sent you the link for earlier in the semester). Make sure you include the full citation of your Journal Article and either a link for me to access it or a copy of it so I can read the original article. One source that you might find handy is ScienceDaily.com or Sclence News.com or Nature where you can search by topic in a given field and it shows a summary of the article but also takes you to the original article as well. Just. make sure you do not copy their summary and write your own please- do not plagiarize. Let me know if you need any help.

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In December 2019, a new disease with pneumonia-like symptoms was spreading throughout Wuhan in China which was entitled as novel coronavirus disease or COVID -19 caused by the virus SARS CoV-2. Within a span of a few days, this disease became a global threat and was termed as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, since then the disease has affected more than 1.5 crore people worldwide and around 6.9 lakh people in India as of July 5, 2020. The origin of the COVID-19 disease has been traced back to the bats, but the intermediary contact is unknown. The disease spreads by respiratory droplets and contaminated surfaces. In most cases, the virus shows mild symptoms like fever, fatigue, dyspnea, cough, etc. which may become severe if appropriate precautions are not adhered to.

Three coronaviruses have crossed the species barrier to cause deadly pneumonia in humans since the beginning of the 21st century: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Drosten et al., 2003, Ksiazek et al., 2003), Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (Zaki et al., 2012) (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 (Huang et al., 2020, Zhu et al., 2020). SARS-CoV emerged in the Guangdong province of China in 2002 and spread to five continents through air travel routes, infecting 8,098 people and causing 774 deaths. In 2012, MERS-CoV emerged in the Arabian Peninsula, where it remains a major public health concern, and was exported to 27 countries, infecting a total of ∼2,494 individuals and claiming 858 lives. A previously unknown coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, was discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province of China and was sequenced and isolated by January 2020 (Zhou et al., 2020, Zhu et al., 2020). SARS-CoV-2 is associated with an ongoing outbreak of atypical pneumonia (Covid-2019) that has affected over 90,000 people and killed more than 3,000 of those affected in >60 countries as of March 3, 2020. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic a public health emergency of international concern.For people with comorbidities (usually elderly) the disease may turn deadly and cause pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome (ARDS), and multi-organ failure, thereby affecting a person’s ability to breathe leading to being put on the ventilator support. The reproduction number (Rℴ) of COVID-19 is much higher than its predecessors and genetically similar diseases like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus represents an ongoing public health challenge that necessitates a heightened need to understand people’s risk perceptions as well as their information-seeking behavior.

Coronaviruses belongs to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family of Coronaviridae and the subfamily contains four genera: AlphacoronavirusBetacoronavirusGammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus. The genome of CoVs (27–32 kb) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA (+ssRNA) which is larger than any other RNA viruses. The nucleocapsid protein (N) formed the capsid outside the genome and the genome is further packed by an envelope which is associated with three structural proteins: membrane protein (M), spike protein (S), and envelope protein (E). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in >90,000 infections and >3,000 deaths. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans.

The coronaviruses entry into host cells is mediated by spike glycoprotein (S protein) (Li et al., 2003; Li et al., 2005; Li, 2016). The transmembrane spike glycoproteins form homotrimers that protrude from the viral surface. The spike glycoprotein is critical for the entry of the coronaviruses so it is an attractive antiviral target. S protein is composed of two functional subunits, including the S1 and S2 subunits. The S1 subunit consists of N-terminal domain (NTD) and receptor binding domain (RBD). The function of S1 subunit is bind to the receptor on host cell. S2 subunit contains fusion peptide (FP), heptad repeat 1 (HR1), central helix (CH), connector domain (CD), heptad repeat 2 (HR2), transmembrane domain (TM), and cytoplasmic tail (CT). The function of S2 subunit is to fuse the membranes of viruses and host cells. The cleavage site at the border between the S1 and S2 subunits is called S1/S2 protease cleavage site. For all the coronaviruses, host proteases cleave the spike glycoprotein at the S2’ cleavage site to activate the proteins which is critical to fuse the membranes of viruses and host cells through irreversible conformational changes. N-linked glycans are critical for proper folding, neutralizing antibodies, and decorating the spike protein trimers extensively. Coronavirus entry into host cells is mediated by the transmembrane spike (S) glycoprotein that forms homotrimers protruding from the viral surface (Tortorici and Veesler, 2019). S comprises two functional subunits responsible for binding to the host cell receptor (S1 subunit) and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes (S2 subunit). For many CoVs, S is cleaved at the boundary between the S1 and S2 subunits, which remain non-covalently bound in the prefusion conformation (Belouzard et al., 2009, Bosch et al., 2003, Burkard et al., 2014, Kirchdoerfer et al., 2016, Millet and Whittaker, 2014, Millet and Whittaker, 2015, Park et al., 2016, Walls et al., 2016a). The distal S1 subunit comprises the receptor-binding domain(s) and contributes to stabilization of the prefusion state of the membrane-anchored S2 subunit that contains the fusion machinery (Gui et al., 2017, Kirchdoerfer et al., 2016, Pallesen et al., 2017, Song et al., 2018, Walls et al., 2016a, Walls et al., 2017b, Yuan et al., 2017). For all CoVs, S is further cleaved by host proteases at the so-called S2′ site located immediately upstream of the fusion peptide (Madu et al., 2009, Millet and Whittaker, 2015). This cleavage has been proposed to activate the protein for membrane fusion via extensive irreversible conformational changes (Belouzard et al., 2009, Heald-Sargent and Gallagher, 2012, Millet and Whittaker, 2014, Millet and Whittaker, 2015, Park et al., 2016, Walls et al., 2017b). As a result, coronavirus entry into susceptible cells is a complex process that requires the concerted action of receptor-binding and proteolytic processing of the S protein to promote virus-cell fusion.

Previous studies have suggested that risk perception is significantly correlated with the public’s adoption of protective action recommendations and has also been identified as an important mediating factor between government intervention and public behavior during COVID-19. In the study of Chisty et al, if people had a higher perceived risk of COVID-19, they were more likely to seek COVID-19 related information than those with a lower perceived risk. An increase in risk information and information-seeking behaviors can lead to positive outcomes by helping to improve prevention, decrease the risk of infection, reduce uncertainty, and alleviate panic.10 However, it has also been proposed that the characteristics of the process of information seeking is an important variable that affects risk perception. According to the social amplification risk framework (SARF) proposed by Kasperson, risk perception can be enhanced or diminished by various amplification stations, such as media, interpersonal interactions, and social media. Furthermore, instant information dissemination and network connections can make risk signals spread quickly and widely, and even form a risk amplification effect on a global scale. Moreover, the continuous generation of massive amounts of information can cause risk signals to accumulate repeatedly, making amplifying risks and making public panic more likely. In addition, the public also faces a challenge in identifying reliable sources of accurate information. These aspects may lead to public distrust of the government and the government’s pandemic response. However, there are currently no studies that study the applicability of the SARF theory during the COVID-19 pandemic. How people’s perceptions of risk are affected by different information sources during the COVID-19 pandemic remains unclear. Environmental samples collected from the Hunan seafood market were tested positive with traces of COVID-19, indicating it as the origin of the virus [9,43]. In the ensuing days, more cases started to appear in China, some of which with no travel history to the Hunan seafood market, confirming that human to human transmission was taking place. The period of January being the month of Chinese New Year incited transmission of the virus with people migrating within China as well as internationally. Cases were reported from Thailand, South Korea, Japan and those infected had a travel history to Wuhan. To contain the spread, the entire city of Wuhan was placed under lockdown on January 23, 2020, shortly after this the lockdown was extended to other parts of Hubei province. Flights were barred from China and screening of passengers with temperature monitors was started at airports. Soon local transmission was observed in diversified countries outside of China and it was found that asymptomatic carriers could also carry out load shedding of the virus following which almost all international travel came to a halt.

Although the previous coronavirus SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV epidemics raised awareness of the need for clinically available therapeutic or preventive interventions, to date, no treatments with proven efficacy are available. The development of effective intervention strategies relies on the knowledge of molecular and cellular mechanisms of coronavirus infections, which highlights the significance of studying virus–host interactions at the molecular level to identify targets for antiviral intervention and to elucidate critical viral and host determinants that are decisive for the development of severe disease. In this Review, we summarize the first discoveries that shape our current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection throughout the intracellular viral life cycle and relate that to our knowledge of coronavirus biology. The elucidation of similarities and differences between SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses will support future preparedness and strategies to combat coronavirus infections.

In this modern the age of information, it has become very common to acquire health-related information through diverse media.16 Therefore, after the outbreak of COVID-19, information diffusion, information seeking, and risk perception have gradually become the focus of much research in the field of public health. Studies on risk information seeking suggest that whether an epidemic can be controlled in a short time is closely related to whether people understand the COVID-19 information and comply with the effective measures taken by the government in response to the epidemic.17 The characteristics of people’s information-seeking behaviors include channels of information seeking, people’s trust in different channels, information content, nature of information (positive or negative), and the frequency of information seeking,10 and a growing body of literature indicates that variations in the characteristics of information-seeking behaviors can produce variations in effects on people’s cognitive, emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral outcomes in dealing with the COVID-19 epidemic.10,18–20 One survey of 637 pregnant women found that women who sought information from sources such as the WHO, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), local departments of health, and public media were more likely to take more actions that were classified as effective protective actions and fewer measures that were classified as potentially harmful than women who obtained information from other sources, such as politicians or relatives and friends. Another large-scale study also suggested that there was an association between information-seeking channels and COVID-19 knowledge, and yet another concluded that if people do not perceive the risk of any emergency and do not seek correct information, raising awareness about a pandemic and managing the emergency will be challenging for health authorities.9 The right message at the right time from the right messenger through the right medium can save lives, as it were. However, few studies have explored the potential impact of different characteristics of information acquisition behavior on risk perception during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially from the perspective of specific information-seeking channels, people’s trust in these information channels, information content, the content of the information, and frequency of information-seeking.

10 scientifc terms:

1. SARS-CoV: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS was first reported in Asia in February 2003. The illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained.

Since 2004, there have not been any known cases of SARS reported anywhere in the world. The content in this website was developed for the 2003 SARS epidemic.

2.SARS-CoV2: The SARS-CoV-2 affects the lungs of the host where it targets the receptors of human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2). As the disease progresses, most of the patients show acute respiratory distress leading to breathlessness and later organ failure, which is the major cause of fatality rates.

3.MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus, or EMC/2012, is the virus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome. It is a species of coronavirus which infects humans, bats, and camels. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, or MERS‐CoV) that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Typical MERS symptoms include fever, cough and shortness of breath. Pneumonia is common, but not always present. Gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhoea, have also been reported. Some laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection are reported as asymptomatic, meaning that they do not have any clinical symptoms, yet they are positive for MERS-CoV infection following a laboratory test. Most of these asymptomatic cases have been detected following aggressive contact tracing of a laboratory-confirmed case.

4. Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome (ARDS):-

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurs when fluid builds up in the tiny, elastic air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs. The fluid keeps your lungs from filling with enough air, which means less oxygen reaches your bloodstream. This deprives your organs of the oxygen they need to function.

5. Dyspnea:-

Shortness of breath — known medically as dyspnea — is often described as an intense tightening in the chest, air hunger, difficulty breathing, breathlessness or a feeling of suffocation. Very strenuous exercise, extreme temperatures, obesity and higher altitude all can cause shortness of breath in a healthy person.

6.The term risk perception refers to an individual’s subjective view of objective risks in the outside world. This concept emphasizes the influence on cognition caused by experience gained from both an individual’s intuitive judgment and subjective feelings.4 Risk perception can also be defined as the subjective feeling of the public and the integration of individual feelings based on objective factors such as risk communication.

7. reproduction number (Rℴ):-

In epidemiology, the basic reproduction number, or basic reproductive number, denoted R_{0}, of an infection is the expected number of cases directly generated by one case in a population where all individuals are susceptible to infection. The definition assumes that no other individuals are infected or immunized. R0 tells you the average number of people who will contract a contagious disease from one person with that disease. It specifically applies to a population of people who were previously free of infection and haven’t been vaccinated.

8. social amplification risk framework (SARF): The Social Amplification/Attenuation of Risk Framework (SARF) is an established theoretical tool for understanding how risks are perceived, interpreted, and amplified or attenuated as they are communicated throughout a society

9.RNA viruses:- RNA viruses replicate their genomes using virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The RNA genome is the template for synthesis of additional RNA strands. During replication of RNA viruses, there are at least three types of RNA that must be synthesized: the genome, a copy of the genome (copy genome), and mRNAs. Some RNA viruses also synthesize copies of subgenomic mRNAs. RdRp is the key player for all of these processes. RdRps of all RNA viruses probably arose from a common ancestor. The RdRp and other proteins required for viral genome synthesis are often called the replicase complex. The replicase complex consists of the set of proteins required to produce infectious genomes. In addition to the RdRp, the replicase complex may contain RNA-helicases (to unwind highly base-paired regions of the RNA genome) and NTPases (to supply energy for the polymerization process). The number of proteins in the replicase complex differs among virus families. There may also be a requirement for host cell proteins. The RNA virus group can be subdivided based on the type of RNA that serves as the genome. Positive or plus (+)-strand RNA viruses have genomes that are functional mRNAs. Their genomes are translated shortly after penetration into the host cell to produce the RdRp (and other viral proteins) required for synthesis of additional viral RNAs. Positive-strand RNA viruses often use large complexes of cellular membranes for genome replication. They actively modify host cell membranes to construct viral replication scaffolds. There are three groups of RNA viruses whose genomes are not mRNAs. They are the negative- or minus-strand RNA viruses, the closely related ambisense RNA viruses, and double-stranded RNA viruses. For each of these groups of viruses, the first synthetic event after genome penetration is transcription. This is accomplished by viral proteins (including the RdRp) that enter cell with the genome.

Human diseases causing RNA viruses include Orthomyxoviruses, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Ebola disease, SARS, influenza, polio measles and retrovirus including adult Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). RNA viruses have RNA as genetic material, that may be a single-stranded RNA or a double stranded RNA. Viruses may exploit the presence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases for replication of their genomes or, in retroviruses, with two copies of single strand RNA genomes, reverse transcriptase produces viral DNA which can be integrated into the host DNA under its integrase function. Studies showed that endogenous retroviruses are long-terminal repeat (LTR)-type retroelements that account for approximately 10% of human or murine genomic DNA.

10.Spike Glycoprotein:-

Spike (S) glycoprotein (sometimes also called spike protein, formerly known as E2) is the largest of the four major structural proteins found in coronaviruses. The spike protein assembles into trimers that form large structures, called spikes or peplomers, that project from the surface of the virion. The distinctive appearance of these spikes when visualized using negative stain transmission electron microscopy, “recalling the solar corona”, gives the virus family its name.

The function of the spike glycoprotein is to mediate viral entry into the host cell by first interacting with molecules on the exterior cell surface and then fusing the viral and cellular membranes. Spike glycoprotein is a class I fusion protein that contains two regions, known as S1 and S2, responsible for these two functions. The S1 region contains the receptor-binding domain that binds to receptors on the cell surface. Coronaviruses use a very diverse range of receptors; SARS-CoV (which causes SARS) and SARS-CoV-2 (which causes COVID-19) both interact with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The S2 region contains the fusion peptide and other fusion infrastructure necessary for membrane fusion with the host cell, a required step for infection and viral replication. Spike glycoprotein determines the virus’ host range (which organisms it can infect) and cell tropism (which cells or tissues it can infect within an organism).

As the coronavirus S glycoprotein is surface-exposed and mediates entry into host cells, it is the main target of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) upon infection and the focus of therapeutic and vaccine design. S trimers are extensively decorated with N-linked glycans that are important for proper folding and for modulating accessibility to host proteases and neutralizing Abs.