Biology

Question: A biochemist wants to separate two peptides by ion- exchange chromatography. At the pH of the mob…

A biochemist wants to separate two peptides by ion- exchange chromatography. At the pH of the mobile phase to be used on the column, one peptide (A) has a net charge of -3, due to the presence of more Glu ad Asp residues than Arg, Lys, and His residues. Peptide B has a net charge …

Question: A biochemist wants to separate two peptides by ion- exchange chromatography. At the pH of the mob… Read More »

A 65-year-old man was first admitted for treatment of chronic obstructive lung disease, renal insufficiency, and significant cardiomegaly. Pertinent laboratory data on admission (5/31) are shown in Case Study Table 12.1.1.

CASE STUDY 12.1 A 65-year-old man was first admitted for treatment of chronic obstructive lung disease, renal insufficiency, and significant cardiomegaly. Pertinent laboratory data on admission (5/31) are shown in Case Study Table 12.1.1. CASE STUDY TABLE 12.1.1 Laboratory Results—First Admission Because of severe respiratory distress, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit, …

A 65-year-old man was first admitted for treatment of chronic obstructive lung disease, renal insufficiency, and significant cardiomegaly. Pertinent laboratory data on admission (5/31) are shown in Case Study Table 12.1.1. Read More »

A 60-year-old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, smoking of 60 packs/year, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and treated hypertension underwent a screening colonoscopy and then felt poorly for a week. She saw her family physician, who referred her to the local hospital clinic, where they did the test listed in the table below. Laboratory results Test Results Reference Range Creatinine 3.7 mg/dL Women <1.2 mg/dL BUN 35 mg/dL 5-20 mg/dL Creatinine clearance 12.5 mL/min 75-115 mL/min C3 148 mg/dL 80-200 mg/dL C4 19 mg/dL 15-80 mg/dL Albumin 4.1 g/dL 3.5 – 5.0 g/dL Calcium 9 mg/dL 8-10 mg/dL Phosphorus 4.6 mg/dL 2.5 – 4.5 mg/dL Cryoglobulin screen negative Serum protein electrophoresis – polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia with no monoclonal immunoglobulin spike identified. Urine protein electrophoresis – protein 15.9 mg/dL with normal immunofixation electrophoresis Urine sediment - no RBCs, 4 – 8 WBCs/hpf, granular and hyaline casts Her creatinine and BUN levels 2 weeks after the colonoscopy were 4.6 and 46 mg/dL, respectively; a baseline (from previous physician’s office testing) serum creatinine was 0.9 mg/dL. Laboratory results are show 1. What disease state is the most likely explanation for the patient’s laboratory results? 2. What is the significance of the polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia with no monoclonal immunoglobulin spike identified on SPE? 3. Is the patient’s urine protein normal? 4. Describe the immunofixation electrophoresis method.

A 60-year-old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, smoking of 60 packs/year, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and treated hypertension underwent a screening colonoscopy and then felt poorly for a week. She saw her family physician, who referred her to the local hospital clinic, where they did the test listed in the table below. Laboratory …

A 60-year-old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, smoking of 60 packs/year, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and treated hypertension underwent a screening colonoscopy and then felt poorly for a week. She saw her family physician, who referred her to the local hospital clinic, where they did the test listed in the table below. Laboratory results Test Results Reference Range Creatinine 3.7 mg/dL Women <1.2 mg/dL BUN 35 mg/dL 5-20 mg/dL Creatinine clearance 12.5 mL/min 75-115 mL/min C3 148 mg/dL 80-200 mg/dL C4 19 mg/dL 15-80 mg/dL Albumin 4.1 g/dL 3.5 – 5.0 g/dL Calcium 9 mg/dL 8-10 mg/dL Phosphorus 4.6 mg/dL 2.5 – 4.5 mg/dL Cryoglobulin screen negative Serum protein electrophoresis – polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia with no monoclonal immunoglobulin spike identified. Urine protein electrophoresis – protein 15.9 mg/dL with normal immunofixation electrophoresis Urine sediment - no RBCs, 4 – 8 WBCs/hpf, granular and hyaline casts Her creatinine and BUN levels 2 weeks after the colonoscopy were 4.6 and 46 mg/dL, respectively; a baseline (from previous physician’s office testing) serum creatinine was 0.9 mg/dL. Laboratory results are show 1. What disease state is the most likely explanation for the patient’s laboratory results? 2. What is the significance of the polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia with no monoclonal immunoglobulin spike identified on SPE? 3. Is the patient’s urine protein normal? 4. Describe the immunofixation electrophoresis method. Read More »

A 76-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with gangrene of her right toe. She was disoriented and had difficulty finding the right words to express herself. On evaluation, it was revealed she lived alone and was responsible for her own cooking. A daughter who lived in the area said her mother was a poor eater, even with much encouragement. An ECG, performed on admission, showed possible ectopic rhythm with occasional premature supraventricular contractions. The cardiologist suspected a possible inferior myocardial infarction of undetermined age. Laboratory results are shown in the following chart.

A 76-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with gangrene of her right toe. She was disoriented and had difficulty finding the right words to express herself. On evaluation, it was revealed she lived alone and was responsible for her own cooking. A daughter who lived in the area said her mother was a poor …

A 76-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with gangrene of her right toe. She was disoriented and had difficulty finding the right words to express herself. On evaluation, it was revealed she lived alone and was responsible for her own cooking. A daughter who lived in the area said her mother was a poor eater, even with much encouragement. An ECG, performed on admission, showed possible ectopic rhythm with occasional premature supraventricular contractions. The cardiologist suspected a possible inferior myocardial infarction of undetermined age. Laboratory results are shown in the following chart. Read More »

A 55-year-old man with no history of illness suffered a blow to the head. He was unconscious when admitted to the hospital and remained in that state until his death 15 days later. A nasogastric tube was inserted to administer the required nutrients (protein, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, and vitamins). The total water intake was 1, 500 mL/d. Starting on day 5, his blood pressure gradually fell. The 24-hour urine volumes recorded from an indwelling catheter were as follows: The patient’s hemoglobin and hematocrit were elevated. Blood chemistry analysis on day 13 revealed the following. What is the probable cause of the elevated proteins? What other results support this conclusion? Why is the BUN elevated?

EXPERT ANSWER 1. The elevated proteins in the blood stream is a result of the following i) Blow to the head might have affected neuro vascular unit causing the proteins pertaining to central nervous system to cross the blood brain barrier thereby appearing in the bloodstream. ii) There is a glymphatic system, which facilitates the …

A 55-year-old man with no history of illness suffered a blow to the head. He was unconscious when admitted to the hospital and remained in that state until his death 15 days later. A nasogastric tube was inserted to administer the required nutrients (protein, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, and vitamins). The total water intake was 1, 500 mL/d. Starting on day 5, his blood pressure gradually fell. The 24-hour urine volumes recorded from an indwelling catheter were as follows: The patient’s hemoglobin and hematocrit were elevated. Blood chemistry analysis on day 13 revealed the following. What is the probable cause of the elevated proteins? What other results support this conclusion? Why is the BUN elevated? Read More »

Immediately following the birth of a baby girl, the attending physician requested a protein electrophoretic examination of the mother’s serum. This was done on a sample that was obtained on the mother’s admission to the hospital the previous day. An electrophoretic examination was also performed on the cord-blood specimen. Laboratory reports are shown in the following chart. The appearance of the mother’s electrophoretic pattern was within that expected for a healthy person. The electrophoretic pattern of the cord-blood serum resembled the one shown in Figure 10-9C. Questions 1. What protein fraction(s) is/are abnormal in the mother’s serum and the cord blood serum? 2. An abnormality in this/these fraction(s) is/are most often associated with what disease? 3. What other test(s) may be done to confirm this

EXPERT ANSWER The most widely used method of measuring serum protein is the biuret reaction. Albumin is generally measured by a dye-binding technique that utilizes the ability of albumin to form a stable complex with bromocresol green dye. The total globulin fraction is generally determined by subtracting the albumin from the total protein. Electrophoresis is the …

Immediately following the birth of a baby girl, the attending physician requested a protein electrophoretic examination of the mother’s serum. This was done on a sample that was obtained on the mother’s admission to the hospital the previous day. An electrophoretic examination was also performed on the cord-blood specimen. Laboratory reports are shown in the following chart. The appearance of the mother’s electrophoretic pattern was within that expected for a healthy person. The electrophoretic pattern of the cord-blood serum resembled the one shown in Figure 10-9C. Questions 1. What protein fraction(s) is/are abnormal in the mother’s serum and the cord blood serum? 2. An abnormality in this/these fraction(s) is/are most often associated with what disease? 3. What other test(s) may be done to confirm this Read More »

Immediately following the birth of a baby girl, the attending physician requested a protein electrophoretic examination of the mother’s serum. This was done on a sample that was obtained on the mother’s admission to the hospital the previous day. An electrophoretic examination was also performed on the cord-blood specimen. Laboratory reports are shown in the following chart. The appearance of the mother’s electrophoretic pattern was within that expected for a healthy person.

Immediately following the birth of a baby girl, the attending physician requested a protein electrophoretic examination of the mother’s serum. This was done on a sample that was obtained on the mother’s admission to the hospital the previous day. An electrophoretic examination was also performed on the cord-blood specimen. Laboratory reports are shown in the …

Immediately following the birth of a baby girl, the attending physician requested a protein electrophoretic examination of the mother’s serum. This was done on a sample that was obtained on the mother’s admission to the hospital the previous day. An electrophoretic examination was also performed on the cord-blood specimen. Laboratory reports are shown in the following chart. The appearance of the mother’s electrophoretic pattern was within that expected for a healthy person. Read More »

LAB EXERCISE 50 The Male Reproductive System Spermatogonia ion of a scminiferous tubule in the testis. T. Semi Spermatids Spermatocyte Sertolicell URE 50-2 A. The testis and associated structures. B, Micrograph of a cross-section of sydig (interstitial) cells.

EXPERT ANSWER Dear Student, 1) Seminiferous tubules. 2) Rete testes 3) Efferent ductules 4) Body of epidydimis 5) Ductus deferens. 6) spermatid 7) primary spermqtocyte 8) smooth muscle 9) spermqtozoa 10) sertoli cells 11) spermatogonia